Saturn's rings

Left: Saturn's rings (NASA). Right: a product of a Cantor set and a circle.
J. Avron and B. Simon showed that the apparent fractality of the ring structure could be caused by gravitational resonances.
However, what they found was not a familiar Cantor set, such as the middle-thirds set, but rather a fat Cantor set.
The middle-thirds set is a thin Cantor set, as are all the others we've seen so far. Here the term "thin" means the Cantor set has length 0. To see why this is true, recall the middle-thirds set is constructed from the unit interval by removing one interval of length 1/3, two intervals of length 1/9, four intervals of length 1/27, and so on. The lengths of the removed intervals add up to
1/3 + 2/9 + 4/27 + ... = (1/3)(1 + 2/3 + 4/9 + ...)
= (1/3)(1/(1 - 2/3))) = 1
where we have used the sum of the geometric series
1 + r + r2 + r2 + ... = 1/(1 - r)
so long as |r| < 1. Because the lengths of the intervals removed sum to the length of the starting interval, the middle-thirds set has length 0. It is thin.
To build a fat Cantor set, just multiply the lengths of the removed intervals by the same number, 1/2 for example. That is, we remove one interval of length 1/6, two of length 1/18, 4 of length 1/54, and so on. The removed lengths add up to 1/2, so the Cantor set formed this way has length 1/2. It is fat.
(Fat Cantor sets aren't self-similar, because the scaling factor varies with each additional level of intervals removed.)
In fact, this fat Cantor set has dimension 1, so the product of this fat Cantor set and a circle has dimension 2.
If the dimension of Saturn's rings were less than 2, the rings would reflect almost no light and so would be almost invisible. If Avron and Simon had gotten a thin Cantor set for the ring cross-section, we'd know their derivation was wrong. But a fat Cantor set is consistent with what we observe.

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