Solar flares

Solar flares (NASA/JAXA)
Loosely associated with clusters of sunspots, solar flares are intense storms on the sun, releasing a tremendous amount of energy, the equivalent of up to several tens of billions of megatons.
A solar flare on March 13, 1989, disrupted Quebec Hydro's transmission lines, leaving six million without power for nine hours. The same storm caused power transformers in New Jersey to melt and disrupted radio signals worldwide.
Marcus and Pascal Aschwanden analyzed fractal scaling of areas and volumes of 20 solar flares.
These fractal scaling relations have implications for the conductive radiance and cooling time of the flare, and for the frequency distribution of flare energies.
Z. G. Yu and coworkers have found evidence of multifractality in the daily solar flare X-ray brightness fluctuations.

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